Boda (বোদা) is the largest upazila of Panchagarh district in respect of area. Nothing is definitely known about the origin of the upazila name. There is a popular hearsay that, the upazila might have derived its name from the name of temple Badeswari Bari Pith located in this upazila.
Area and Location: Boda occupies an area of 349.47 sq. km including 3.40 sq. km. forest area. It is located between 26.2083° N 88.5597° E. The upazila is bounded on the north by Panchagarh Sadar, on the east by Debiganj on the south by Thakurgaon sadar and Debiganj and on the west by Atwari.
Main rivers of Boda Upazila are Pathraj, Karatoya and Tangon.
Maps of Boda
Administration: Boda became a thana on 1 September, 1883. It was included in Thakurgaon subdivision of Dinajpur district after the partition of India in 1947 and was included in Panchagarh district in 1984. Boda (Town) consists of 2 mouzas with an area of 1.93 sq km. The upazila consists of 10 unions, 159 mauzas and 239 villages. The average population size of each union, mauza and village are 20,069, 1,262 and 840 respectively.
Tourism: The Vadeswari mosque, Vadeswari Temple and Govinda Temple are the tourist attractions.
Population: According to the population census 2001 the total population of the upazila is 2,00,693 of which 1,03,229 are males and 97,464 are females. The sex ratio of the upazila is 106 males per 100 females as against 105 males per 100 females in 1991. Among them Muslims are 74.93%, Hindus 24.8%, Christians 0.03%, ethnic groups 0.15%, others 0.09%.
The growth rate of population for the last decade is 19.28% and the annual compound growth rate is 1.78%. The decadal growth rates over the last half century are shown below:
|Decade||Growth Rate||*1961-1974 period shown as decennial precise 1971 census postponed until 1974 due to war of liberation.|
Literacy and Education: Literacy and educational institutions Average literacy 29.4%; male 38.2%, female 20.2%; Educational institutions are College 4, High School 47, Madrasha 11, Government Primary School 71, (non-gov) Primary School 89, Satellite School 1. Old educational institutions: Nayadighi primary school (1828), Goalpara primary school (1830), Boda ideal primary School (1873).
In Boda it is found that 43.1% population aged 7 years and over is literate. Literacy rates by sex and locality of three consecutive censuses are shown below, Considerable increase in the literacy rate is observed over the decades in the upazila.
|* Literacy rate in 1981 is calculated for population 5 years and above.|
There is found in the table an increase of 13.7, 10.7 and 16.7 percent point in 2001 over 1991 for both sexes, males and females respectively. In the upazila, the literacy rate is the highest i.e. 51.6% in Boda union and the lowest i.e. 37.5% in Kajal dhighi of Kaliganj union.
Economic Activity: Main occupations Agriculture 58.52%, commerce 4.94%, agricultural laborer 25.46%, non agricultural laborer 2.84 %, service 2.47%, others 5.77%.
In the upazila, 27.81% of the populations are below 10 years of age. Among the population of age 10 years and over 25.50% are not working, 1.45 % are looking for work, 34.10% are engaged in household work and the remaining 38.95% are working. The distribution of working people shows in agriculture 29.05%, industry 0.18%, business 3.29%, services 0.20%, construction 0.50%, transport and communication 1.57% and others 4.16%.
In the upazila, 75.19% of the dwelling households depend on agriculture as the main source of household income with 49.94% cropping, livestock, forestry and fishery and 25.25% as agricultural labor. Other sources of household income are non- agricultural labor (2.91%), business (9.28%), employment (3.63%), construction (0.93%), religious service (0.16%), rent and remittance (0.10%), transport and communication (4.61%) and others (3.19%). In urban area, main sources of household income are employment (19.44%), construction (6.13%), rent and remittance (0.40%), religious service (0.26%), business (32.81%), non-agricultural labor (6.46%) and others (34.50%). In rural area the main sources of household income are agriculture(77.21%) of which cropping, livestock, forestry and fishery (51.28%) and agricultural labor (25.93%).Other sources are non-agricultural labor (2.79%), business (8.44%), transport and communication (4.61%), employment (3.06%), construction (0.74%) and others (3.15%) .
Urbanization: Boda headquarters is the only urban area of the upazila. It consists of three mauzas and occupies an area of 4.17 sq. km.
Institutions: Religious institutions of Boda upazila are Mosque 368, temple 12. Among cultural organizations Public library 2, rural club 40, cinema hall 4, theatre 1. The town has one Dakbungalow (Rest house).
Health Centers: Boda has the Upazila Health Complex, along with 9 Family Planning Centers, and 2 Satellite Clinics.
Industry and Commerce: Boda has 30 Husking mills. Cottage industries are Bamboo work 120, Goldsmith 20, Blacksmith 50, Potteries 70, Wood work 45, Tailoring 175, Brick field 8. Main exports are Paddy, Jute, Betel nut, and Wheat.
Shops and Markets: Total numbers of Hats, bazaars and fairs is 42, most noted of which are Boda, Maidandighi, Sakoa hat, Tepukuria hat, Phultala, Mandaler hat, Marea hat. Noted fairs are Boalmari mela, Baruni mela.
Communication: Boda has 50 km paka road, 2 km semi paka road and 480 km mud road. Boda also has 4 km railways. Traditional transports are palanquin, horse carriage, and bullock cart. These means of transport are extinct or nearly extinct. See Travel Tips
Cultivation: Main crops of this upazila are Paddy, Jute, Wheat, and Sugarcane. Extinct and nearly extinct crops are Aus paddy, millet, kaun, dhemsi. Main fruits are Mango, Jackfruit, Litchi, Banana, and Betel nut.
Land Distribution: In Boda upazila, 59.95% of the dwelling households own and 40.05% do not own agricultural land. Percentage of ownership of agricultural land is 38.16% in urban area as against 60.73% in rural area. Land use Cultivable land 28680 hectares, fallow land 142 hectares; single crop 10%, double crop 65%, triple crop 25%; arable land under irrigation 33%.
Enclaves: The Indian enclaves in the upazila are Puthimari, Daikhat, Shalbari, Kazaldighi, Nataktoka, and Nazirganj. Total area of the enclaves is 1440 hectares; and their population is 5500.
[Source: Banglapedia, Wikipedia]